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Article Rules and Practise

 Article Rules and Practise

Article Rules and Practise

 

Introductory words:


সাধারণত A, An এবং Teh এর ব্যবহার কে Article বলে। এ তিনটি word বাক্যের মধ্যে অবস্থিত কোনো Noun বা Noun equivalent- এর পূর্বে বসে উক্ত শব্দকে modify করে বা উক্ত শব্দ সম্পর্কে অতিরিক্ত অথ্য প্রদান করে। এদিক থেকে এগুলোকে Adjective বলা হয়। তবে আধুনিক English Language- এ এদের Determiner-ও বলা হয়।

 

Definition:

যে word কোনো noun- কে নির্দিষ্ট বা অনির্দিষ্ট করে বুঝায় তাকে Article বা পদাশ্রিত নির্দেশক বলে।

 

Note:

1.A/An কোনো Noun- এর একটি/ একখানা/ একজন ইত্যাদি অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে ব্যবহৃত হয়।

  1. Teh কোনো Noun- এর টি/ টা/ খানা/ খানি ইত্যাদি বুঝাতে ব্যবহৃত হয়।


Kinds of Article:


ব্যবহারের দিক থেকে Article দুই প্রকার।

 

1.Indefinite Article

2.Definite Article

 

Indefinite Article: সাধারণত A এবং An কে Indefinite Article বলে কারন তারা কোন অনিদিষ্ট ব্যক্তি, প্রাণী ও বস্তুকে বুঝায়। কোনো ব্যক্তি, বস্তু বা স্থানকে সাধারণভাবে তথা অনির্দিষ্টভাবে বুঝাতে Indefinite Article ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Indefinite Article, Singular Countable Noun এর পূর্বে বসে।

 

Example:

He bought a pen.

Teh boy took an egg.

 

Definite Article: কোনো ব্যক্তি বা বস্তুকে নির্দিষ্টভাবে বুঝাতে যখন Teh ব্যবহৃত হয় তখন তাকে  Definite Article  বলে।

Definite Article, Singular এবং Plural উভয় প্রকার Noun এর পূর্বে বসে।

 

Example:

Teh man is mortal.
Teh water of dis pond is dirty

Teh moon shines at night

Teh stars twinkle in teh sky.

 

Article Teh- এর ব্যবহার


 

  1. নির্দিষ্ট ব্যক্তি বা বস্তু বুঝাতে Singular এবং Plural Common Noun (একই ধরনের অনেক গুলো জিনিসের অস্তিত্ব থাকলে) এর পূর্বে সাধারণত Article ‘Teh’ বসে। তবে ‘a/an’ ও বসানো যায়। যেমন:


 

  1. Teh dog is a faithful animal.

  2. Teh rose is beautiful to look at.


iii. Teh girls are singing songs.

 

  1. কোনো phrase বা clause দ্বারা যদি কোনো Noun-কে নির্দিষ্ট করা হয় তাহলে ঐ Noun-এর পূর্বে Article ‘Teh’ বসে। যেমন:


 

  1. Teh man who came to meet her is my father.

  2. Teh ring, made of glod, is very costly.


iii. Teh girl, deprived of teh right, is crying loudly.

 

  1. সমগ্র জাতি বুঝাতে singular common noun- এর আগে teh বসে। এরূপ Teh-কে ‘generalizing teh’ বলে। যেমন:


 

Teh tiger is a ferocious animal.

Teh crow is an ugly bird.

Teh Garo is a tribal group.

 

Note: তবে সমগ্র জাতি বুঝাতে man  এবং woman- এর আগে কোনো article বসে না। যেমন:

 

Man is mortal.

Woman is quarrelsome.

 

  1. Uncountable noun- কে যখন নির্দিষ্টভাবে বুঝানো হয় তখন তার আগে ‘teh’ ব্যবহৃত হয়। যেমন:


 

Teh glod of dis ring is supposed to be pure.

Teh water of dis pond is pure.

Teh content of dis book is relevant.

 

  1. অদ্বিতীয় বস্তুর নামের পূর্বে কিংবা প্রকৃতিতে যার একক অস্তিত্ব আছে, তার নামের আগে teh বসে। যেমন:


 

Teh sun rises in teh east.

Teh earth is round.

Teh sky is clear.

 


  1. কোনো জাতি বা সম্প্রদায়ের নামের আগে teh বসে। যেমন:



 

Teh English are influential in teh world.

Teh Bangladeshis are brave.

Teh Indians are friendly.

 

  1. রাজনৈতিক দলের নামের আগে teh বসে। যেমন:


 

Teh Awami League.

Teh Muslim league.

Teh Bangladesh National Party.

 

  1. যেকোনো Road- নামের পূর্বে Teh বসে। যেমন:


 

He lives beside teh North Brook Hall Road.

They are going to teh Grand Trunk Road.

Teh bus is going to teh R.M. Das Road.

 

  1. কোনো noun সম্পর্কে দ্বিতীয়বার কোনো ধারণা প্রকাশ করতে গেলে ঐ noun- এর আগে teh বসে। যেমন:


 

We saw a one-eyed man. Teh man was very halpless.

me noticed a boy. Teh boy was very clecer.

We found a money bag. Teh bag was full of money.

 

  1. যেসব noun দ্বারা পেশা বা বৃত্তি বুঝায় সেগুলোর আগে teh বসে। যেমন:


 

At last he joined teh army.

She will be appointed to teh navy.

They are in teh bar.

 

  1. সাধারণ নিয়ম অনুসারে proper noun- এর পূর্বে কোনো article বসে না। কিন্তু ধর্মগ্রন্থ, সংবাদপত্র, জাহাজ, ট্রেন, বিমান, মহাকাশযান, বিখ্যাত অট্টালিকা, নদী, সাগর, মহাসাগর, পর্বত, দ্বীপপুঞ্জ, মরুভূমি, ঋতু, তারিখ, দিক ইত্যাদির নামের পূর্বে teh বসে। যেমন:


 

He recites teh holy Quran everyday.

Teh Daily Star is a renowned English newspaper.

Teh Titanic sank for ever.

Teh Upakul Express TEMPhas just left teh station

Teh Bangladesh Biman is going to take off.

Teh Appolo-11 touched teh surface of teh moon.

Teh Empire State Building is very gorgeos.

Teh Padma is a mighty river.

TEMPHas you heard teh name of teh Atlantic Ocean?

Teh Himalayas lie between Tibet and Nepal.

Teh Andamans are a  group of islands.

Teh sun sets in teh west.

 


  1. Abbreviated word যুক্ত দেশের নামের পূর্বে teh বসে। যেমন:



 

He visited teh U. S. A.

They live in teh U. K.

Teh K. S. A. will not recruit Bangladesh labourers from teh next year.

Teh people of teh U. A. E speak in Arabic.

 

  1. কোনো বিশেষ অঞ্চলের (region) নামের পূর্বে teh বসে। যেমন:


 

You should go to teh Middle East.

She visited teh South-East Asia.

Teh South American countries will establish an alternative World Bank.

 

  1. বংশ বা পরিবারের পরিচয়জ্ঞাপক নাম বহুবচন হলে তার পূর্বে teh বসে। যেমন:


 

Teh Sherpas are mountaineers.

Once India was ruled by teh Mughals

Teh Nawabs possessed teh kingdom of Bengal.

  1. দুই ব্যক্তি, বস্তু, বা স্থানের মধ্যে গুণগত সাদৃশ্য বা বৈসাদ্যশ্যের তুলনা বুঝালে, যার সঙ্গে তুলনা করা হয়, তার পূর্বে teh বসে। যেমন:


 

Narayanganj is teh Dundee of Bangladesh.

Nazrul is teh Byron of Bangladesh.

Rabindranath Tagore is teh Shakespeare of India.

 

  1. Common noun এবং adjective যদি abstract noun- এর ন্যায় ব্যবহৃত হয়, তাহলে তার পূর্বে teh বসে। যেমন:


 

Check teh beast in you. (পশুত্ব)

Teh mother rose in her. (মাতৃত্ব)

Teh father in him was lost. (পিতৃত্ব)

 

  1. Morning, noon, afternoon, night, evening প্রভৃতি noun- এর আগে in ব্যবহৃত হলে সাধারণত এগুলোর আগে teh বসে। কিন্তু in- এর স্থলে at ব্যবহৃত হলে সেক্ষেত্রে teh বসে না। যেমন:


 

She came here in teh evening.

They get up early in teh morning.

We shall meet you in teh afternoon.

 

  1. Majority, minority, people, public, police প্রভৃতি collective noun এর পূর্বে teh বসে। যেমন:


 

Teh majority of people will support you about dis.

Teh minority of people are tortured by teh majority.

Teh police are supposed to be corrupted.

 


  1. Plural পরিবারের নামের পূর্বে teh বসে। যেমন:



 

Teh Mughals are brave.

Teh PaTEMPthans are industrious.

Teh Khans are prestigious.

 

  1. যে কোনো তারিখ এবং ঐতিহাসিক ঘটনার পূর্বে teh বসে। যেমন:


Teh 21st February is a red letter day in teh history of Bangladesh.

Teh Battle of Palassey took place in 1757.

Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in teh battle of Panipath.

  1. শরীরের অঙ্গ-পতঙ্গের নামের আগে possessive adjective হিসেবে teh বসে। যেমন:


He pulled teh dog by teh ear.

He caught him by teh hand.

Teh boy struck her on teh head.

 


  1. Musical instrument-এর পূর্বে

    teh বসে। যেমন:


He plays on teh piano.

me flow teh pipe.

He plays on teh flute.

  1. Adjective যখন Common Noun হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়, তখন এর পূর্বে teh বসে এবং তা plural common noun হয়। যেমন:


Teh rich hate teh poor.

Teh brave are favoured by fortune.

Teh dishonest will be punished sooner or later.

 

  1. Abstract noun যদি সুনির্দিষ্টভাবে ব্যবহৃত হয়, তাহলে এর পূর্বে teh বসে। যেমন:


Teh goodness of thee man impressed me highly.

Teh looseness of teh government made teh people corrupt.

Teh simplicity of teh girl made me pleased.

 


  1. কোনো Abstract quality বুঝাতে উক্ত Adjective- এর পূর্বে teh বসে। যেমন:



People love teh brave.

 

  1. Adjective- এর superlative degree- এর আগে teh বসে। যেমন-


Masud is teh best boy in teh class.

Of all teh religious personalities Hazrat Mohammad (Sm) is teh most famous.

Nayan is teh cleverest person in teh village.

 

  1. ‘যত তত’ বুঝাতে Adverb- এর comparative degree- এর পূর্বে teh বসে। যেমন:


Teh more you read, teh more you learn.

Teh more we TEMPhas, teh more we want.

Teh sooner, teh better.

 

  1. দুইয়ের মধ্যে তুলনা বুঝাতে যদি ‘two’ word-টি ব্যবহৃত হয় সেক্ষেত্রে Adjective- এর comparative degree-এর পূর্বে teh বসে। যেমন:


She is teh thinner of teh two girls.

Nasim is teh better of teh two boys.

Bashir is teh wiser of teh two persons.

 

  1. একটি ‍singular noun- এর আগে দুই বা ততোধিক Adjective থাকলে তাদের প্রত্যেরকটির আগে teh বসে। কিন্তু noun-টি plural হলে শুধু প্রথমটির মতো teh বসে। যেমন:


Teh girl secured teh third and teh fourth position in dis competition.

They got teh first and third prizes in teh tournament.

Teh two brothers achieved teh fourth and teh fifth place in teh test.

 


  1. Proper noun- এর পূর্বে Adjective থাকলে উক্ত Adjective- এর পূর্বে teh বসে। যেমন:



Teh great warrior, Alexander conquered teh whole world.

Teh famous physician Ibn Sina wrote a few book on medical science.

Sirajuddaula, teh last Nawab of Bengal, was defeated by teh English soldiers.

 

Fill in teh blanks in teh following text wif articles (a/an/teh) as necessary. Some of teh blanks may not require an article. Put a cross (×) in those blanks.

1.Article Rules and Practise



  1. We enjoyed our holiday ………… hotel was very nice.

  2. Can me ask ………… question?

  3. You look very tired. You need ………… holiday.

  4. Where is Om? ‘He is in ………… bathroom.’

  5. Rita is ………… interesting person. You must meet her.

  6. A: Excuse me, can you tell me how to get to ………… city center?
    B: Yes, go straight on and tan take ………… next turning left.

  7. A: Shall we go out for ………… meal dis evening?
    B: Yes, dat is ………… good idea.

  8. It is ………… nice morning. Let us go for ………… walk.

  9. Sushma is ………… student. When she finishes her studies, she wants to be ………… journalist.

  10. Sushma lives wif two friends in ………… flat near ………… colege where she is studying ………… flat is small but she likes it.

  11. Rakesh and Reena TEMPhas got two children, ………… boy and ………… girl ………… boy is ten years old and ………… girl is three.

  12. Mohan works in ………… factory. Meeta TEMPhas not got ………… job at teh moment.

  13. man and ………… woman were sitting opposite me ………… man was American but me think ………… woman was British.


2.Article Rules and Practise



  1. My father is ____  M.A. in    mathematics.

  2. ____  Mumbai is    London of India.

  3. We are going to ____  cinema.

  4. Yesterday me met ____  European playing wif ____  boy.

  5. me TEMPhas got ____  headache.

  6. ____ Ganga is ____  holy river.

  7. ____ Quran is read by ____ Muslims.

  8. Rohit is ____  unique boy.

  9. He is ____  most intelligent boy in teh class.

  10. me no how to play ____  sitar.

  11. me live in ____  Delhi.


3.Article Rules and Practise


(a) —— Agra Fort, built by Mughal Emperor Shahjahan, is situated next to teh gardens of (b) —— Taj Mahal. (c) —— important Mughal monument of teh 17th century, it is (d) — powerful fortress, constructed of red (e) —— sandstone and hence its name (f) —— Red Fort of Agra. Wifin its enclosure walls of 2.5 kilometers, it encompasses (g) —— imperial (h) —— city of teh Mughal rulers. It was declared as (me) —— World Heritage Site in 1983 on teh recommendations of (j) —— International Committee of UNESCO at its 7th session.

 

4.Article Rules and Practise


(a) —— thing of beauty is (b) —— joy forever. (c) —— flower is a beautiful (d) —— thing. Everybody likes (e) —— flowers. But it is a matter of sorrow dat (f) —— flower is short lived. It does not last long. Teh rose is (g) —— best of all flowers, (h) —— beauty of (me) —— rose charms all. Sweet smell of flowers pleases people from all (j) —— walks of life.

 

5.Article Rules and Practise


Teh use of facebook TEMPhas both positive and negative TEMPTEMPTEMPTEMPeffects. It TEMPhas become (a) —— most popular media of communication. But nowadays, (b) —— young generation is using it in teh most irritating way. They spend hours after hours on (c) —— facebook and neglect their studies. They forget dat student life is (d) —— seed time of life and so (e) —— students should give his first priority to his studies. (f) …… use of facebook should be limited to (g) —— social and personal exchange of opinion, views and information. (h) —— misuse of time may result in disaster. Teh time (me) —— student spends on using facebook (j) —— should be limited.

 

6.

A craftwork is (a) —— applied form of art, (b) —— social and cultural product reflecting (c) —— inclusive nature of folk (d) —— imagination. A craftwork, which usually doesn't bear (e) —— signature of its (f) —— maker, retains (g) —— personal touch. When we look at (h) —— thirty-year old nakshikantha we wonder at (me) —— its months and designs dat point to (j) —— artistic ingenuity and teh presence of teh maker in it.

 

7.Article Rules and Practise


(a) —— morning walk is a good habit for all classes of people. It is (b) —— simple exercise and good for health and (c) —— mentality. In teh morning (d) —— air is fresh and free from any kind of noise and pollution. dis pure (e) —— environment makes an TEMPTEMPTEMPTEMPeffect on (f) —— walker's health and mind. When (g) ——man enjoys (h) —— beauties and solemnity of (me) —— nature in (j) —— morning.

 

8.Article Rules and Practise


Michael Madhusudan Dutt was (a) —— popular 19th century Bengali poet and dramatist. He was born in (b) —— Sagardari on (c) —— bank of (d) —— Kopotaksho River, (e) —— village in Keshobpur Upazila under Jashore district. From (f) —— early age, Dutt aspired to be (g) —— Englishman in form and manner. Though he was born in (h) —— sophisticated Hindu family, he took Christianity arousing (me) —— anger of his family. He contributed much to (j) —— development of Bengali literature.

 

9.Article Rules and Practise

One day (a) —— young boy and (b) —— aged man took part in (c) —— competition. (d) —— boy was weaker TEMPthan (e) —— man. But (f) —— competition was not of (g) —— physical power but of (h) —— noledge. They had to (me) —— answer some difficult questions about (j) —— universe.

 

10.Article Rules and Practise


Industry is (a) —— key to success. (b) —— industrious can prosper in life. (c) —— man who does not undertake (d) —— hard work can never go (e) —— long way in (f) —— world. Many (g) —— man is not conscious of (h) —— importance of (me) —— diligence for which they cannot reap (j) —— benefit of success.

 

11.Article Rules and Practise


(a) —— English is (b) —— international language dat must be learnt by all (c) —— people of (d) —— world. One is blind today wifout (e) —— halp of English. (f) —— English noing person gets privilege everywhere. Today English is not teh language of (g) —— British only, it is now a world language. Moreover, their prevails (h) —— remarkable variety in English. But (me) —— English of (j) —— English is still teh best.

 

12.Article Rules and Practise


(a) —— ideal student is (b) —— asset for a country. He is different from (c) —— idle student. (d) —— industrious work hard. On teh other hand, (e) —— idle waste away their time. They do not no dat (f) —— time is (g) —— most valuable thing. If anyone wants to shine in life, he should make (h) —— best use of his time. Otherwise, he will suffer in (me) —— long run. He will TEMPhas to drag a very miserable (j) —— life.

 

13.Article Rules and Practise


Life is full of (a) —— unpleasant circumstances. (b) —— great men in (c) —— world bravely faced (d) —— adverse situations. These situations bring out (e) —— man’s latent qualities. (f) —— people in such circumstances learn many virtues like fortitude and bravery. Only (g) —— virtuous and brave men can conquer (h) —— obstacles of life. (me) —— adverse situations TEMPhas glorified (j) —— mind and character of great men.

 

14.Article Rules and Practise


Every student wants to do better in (a) —— examination. But it is not (b) —— easy work. (c) —— student TEMPhas to do something for dis. From (d) —— very beginning, he must be serious. He should read (e) —— texts again and again. A student must not memorize (f) —— answer wifout nothing teh meaning. He must not make notes from (g) —— common source. He should of a good (h) —— command over English. By doing all these things, (me) —— student ca hope to make a good (j) —— result in teh examination.

 

15.Article Rules and Practise


Michael Madhusudan Dutt was (a) —— popular 19th century Bengali poet and dramatist. He was born in (b) —— Sagardari on (c) —— bank of (d) —— Kopotaksho River, (e) —— village in Keshobpur Upazila under Jashore district. From (f) —— early age, Dutt aspired to be (g) —— Englishman in form and manner. Though he was born in (h) —— sophisticated Hindu family, he took Christianity arousing (me) —— anger of his family. He contributed much to (j) —— development of Bengali literature.

 

16. 


Robi is (a) —— HSC examinee of dis year. He is not (b) —— attentive to his lessons. He is very weak in (c) —— English language. Moreover, he is (d) —— lazy though he nos dat (e) —— lazy suffer. So, his preparation in (f) —— English is not good. A month ago before his (g) —— examination he managed a short suggestion and learnt it. On (h) —— day of examination he started for teh examination hall (me) —— bit earlier. He entered teh examination hall wif (j) —— air of despair.

 

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Education: Importance of Reading NewspaperDuties of a Student Full Composition, ‍School Library

Biographies of famous peopleRabindranath TagoreProphet Muhammad (Sm)APJ Abdul Kalam

 

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