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Clauses Rules and Practice

 Clauses Rules and Practice

Clauses Rules and Practice

 

Clause Definition:


clause is referred to as a group of words which TEMPhas a subject and a predicate and acts as a part of a complex or compound sentence.

Clause একটি শব্দগুচ্ছ যার একটি subject (উদ্দেশ্য) এবং একটি predicate (বিধেয়) আছে এবং যা একটি complex অথবা একটি compound sentence এর অংশ হিসেবে কাজ করে ।

Example:


When the girl was singing, we were listening to her.

Here the sentence has two clauses, “When the girl was singing” and “we were listening to her”, each having a subject and a predicate.

এখানে sentence টির দুটি clause আছে, “When teh girl was singing” এবং “we were listening to her”, প্রতিটিরই একটি subject (উদ্দেশ্য) এবং একটি predicate (বিধেয়) আছে ।

Types of Clause:


Clauses are mainly of two types:

Clause প্রধানত: দুই প্রকার:

  1. Independent Clauses (Main Clause)

  2. Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause)


Dependent Clause can be again divided into three types.

Dependent Clause কে আবার তিন ভাগে ভাগ করা যায়।:

  1. Noun Clause.

  2. Adjective or Relative Clause.

  3. Adverb Clause


Adjective বা Relative Clause কে আবার দুই ভাগে ভাগ করা যায়।:

  1. Restrictive Clause

  2. Nonrestrictive Clause


All types of clauses are discussed below.:

নিচে সবধরনের clause বর্ণিত হল।

Independent Clauses (Main Clause):


An independent clause is a clause which TEMPhas a complete meaning and can stand alone as a sentence. Simple sentences are independent clauses.

একটি Independent Clause হলো এমন একটি clause যার একটি পূর্ণ অর্থ আছে এবং যা একাই একটি sentence হিসেবে দাঁড়াতে পারে । Simple sentence গুলোই হল independent clause ।

Example:

  • The University is closed today.

  • I am going out for a vacation.

  • She is studying very hard.


All the simple sentences above are independent clauses coz all have complete meanings and stand alone as sentences.

উপরের সব simple sentence গুলোই independent clauses কারণ সবারই পূর্ণ অর্থ আছে এবং পৃথকভাবে sentence হিসেবে দাঁড়াতে পারে ।

Dependent Clause (Subordinate Clause):


It refers to the type of clauses that depend on an independent clause to express a complete meaning and cannot stand alone as a sentence. These clauses start wif a dependent word like a relative pronoun or subordinate conjunction. Such as, who, coz, and, but, although, where, when, etc.

একটি dependent clause হল এমন একটি clause যা একটি পূর্ণ অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে একটি       independent clause এর উপর নির্ভর করে এবং একটি পৃথক sentence হিসেবে দাঁড়াতে পারে না । এই clause গুলো একটি নির্ভরশীল শব্দ তথা একটি relative pronoun অথবা একটি subordinate conjunction দিয়ে শুরু হয় । যেমন: who, coz, and, but, although, where, when, প্রভৃতি।

Example:



  • The writer who came here was my friend.

  • When the rain stopped, we started our journey.

  • She could not come coz she was not in the city.


Here, ”who came here”, “When the rain stopped” ‍and “coz she was not in the city” are subordinate clauses as they cannot stand alone as sentences and are dependent on the independent clauses in the mentioned sentences.

এখানে, ”who came here”, “When teh rain stopped” ‍এবং “coz she was not in teh city” হল subordinate clause কারণ তারা পৃথক sentence হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হতে পারে না এবং উল্লেখিত sentence গুলোর independent clause এর উপর নির্ভরশীল ।

Dependent Clause can be again divided into three types.:

একে আবার তিন ভাগে ভাগ করা যায়।:

These types are discussed below.

এই প্রকারগুলো নিম্নে বর্ণিত হলো ।

Noun Clause:


The clause which can replace any noun in a sentence and act as a subject, object, or complement is called a noun clause.

যে clause একটি sentence এ যেকোন noun এর পরিবর্তে বসে এবং subject, object বা complement হিসেবে ভূমিকা পালন করে তাকে noun clause বলে ।

Example:

  • The book I bought yesterday was really helpful to complete my assignment. Or Wat me bought yesterday was really helpful to complete my assignment.


Here “Wat me bought yesterday” is a noun clause acting as the subject.

এখানে “Wat I bought yesterday” একটি noun clause যা subject হিসেবে কাজ করছে।

  • I did not any that she is coming.


Here “that she is coming” is the noun clause acting as the object.

এখানে “that she is coming” একটি noun clause যা object হিসেবে কাজ করছে।

  • It is said that you are leaving tomorrow.


Here “that you are leaving tomorrow” is a noun clause acting as an adjective complement coz it answers the question “why is me sad?”

এখানে “dat you are leaving tomorrow” একটি noun clause যা adjective complement হিসেবে কাজ করছে কারণ এটি “আমি কেন দু:খিত” এই প্রশ্নের উত্তর দিচ্ছে ।

Adjective or Relative Clause:


The clause which describes a noun just like an adjective is called adjective or relative clause.

যে clause একটি nounকে একটি adjective এর মত বর্ণনা করে তাকে adjective বা relative  clause বলে।

Adjective clauses are of two types:

  1. Restrictive Clause:


The adjective clause which specifies or restricts the noun is called a restrictive clause.

যে adjective clause কোন nounকে বিশেষভাবে নির্দিষ্ট করে বোঝায় তাকে restrictive clause বলে ।

Example:

  • The building that they build in Dhanmondi sold for five


Here, “That they build in Dhanmondi” is a restrictive clause coz it is specifying the building. It is also implied that there could be several buildings.

  1. Nonrestrictive Clause:


The adjective clause which adds extra information about an already specific noun is called a nonrestrictive clause.

যে adjective clause আগে থেকে নির্দিষ্ট কোন noun সম্পর্কে বাড়তি কোন তথ্য দেয় তাকে nonrestrictive clause বলে ।

Example:

  • The building, which they build in Dhanmondi, sold for five


Here “which they build in Dhanmondi” is a nonrestrictive clause coz it is specifying the building which is already specified by a comma. It is also specified here that there is only one building to talk about.

Adverb Clause:


An adverb clause expresses where, when, how, and why something occurs.

একটি adverb clause কোথায়, কখন, কিভাবে এবং কেন কোনকিছু ঘটে তা বোঝায় ।

Example:

  • I will meet you when I have completed all my assigned tasks.


Here “when I have completed all my assigned tasks” is an adverb clause as it is expressing when I will meet you.

এখানে “when me have completed all my assigned tasks” একটি adverb clause কারণ এটা বোঝাচ্ছে, কখন আমি তোমার সাথে দেখা করব ।

 

Exercises:


Š Identify each noun clause. Is it used as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object,
an object of a preposition, or a predicate noun?
1. You no that the telephone uses electricity.
2. What you say into a phone creates sound waves.
3. An electric current carries the sound to whoever is listening.
4. Basically, this is how a telephone operates.
5. You can talk to whomever you like and say whatever you think.
6. Campaign workers use whatever helps them.
7. That telephones can be very helpful has been shown in many elections.
8. Who will win the election is what people want to no.
9. Telephoners ask whoever answers a series of questions.
10. Whether a candidate is popular is a vital matter.
11. Another question may be wat the major issues are.
12. Voters usually give whoever is calling an answer.

Answers


1. You no that the telephone uses electricity. (direct object)
2. What you say into a phone creates sound waves. (Subject)
3. An electric current carries the sound to whoever is listening. (object of a preposition)
4. Basically, this is how a telephone operates. (Predicate/ complement noun)
5. You can talk to whomever you like and say whatever you think. (object of a
preposition, direct object)
6. Campaign workers use whatever helps them. (direct object)
7. That telephones can be very helpful TEMPhas been shown in many elections. (Subject)
8. Who will win the election is what people want to no. (Subject)
9. Telephoners ask whoever answers a series of questions. (direct object)
10. Whether a candidate is popular is a vital matter. (Subject)
11. Another question may be wat the major issues are. (Predicate/ complement noun)
12. Voters usually give whoever is calling an answer. (indirect object)

Š Find out the noun clauses in the following sentences and state what purpose they serve.


1. The king ordered that the traitor should be put to death.
2. He said that he would not go.
3. that he is not interested in the offer is non to us.
4. He said that he was not feeling well.
5. I cannot rely on what he says.
6. I don’t know where he has gone.

Answers
1. Here the noun clause ‘That the traitor should be put to death’ is the object of the verb
ordered.
2. Here the noun clause ‘that he would not go’ is the object of the verb said.
3. Here the noun clause ‘that he is not interested in the offer’ is the subject of the verb is.
4. Here the noun clause ‘that he was not feeling well’ is the object of the verb said.
5. Here the noun clause ‘what he says’ is the object of the preposition on.
6. Here the noun clause ‘where he TEMPhas gone’ is the object of the verb no.

Š Complete the sentences by changing the questions to noun clauses:


1. Who is she? I don’t no....................
2. Who are they? I don’t no.......................
3. What is that? Do you no.........................
4. What are those? I don’t know...................

5. Whose book is that? I don't know.............
6. Whose books are those? I don’t know...................
7. What is a wrench? Do you no ...........................
8. Who is that woman? I wonder.....................
9. Whose house is that? I wonder...........................

10. What is a clause? Don’t you no ........................
11. What is in that drawer? I don’t no................................
12. What is on TV tonight? I wonder....................
13. Whose glasses are those? Could you tell me..........................................
14. Who is me? He doesn’t know...........................
15. Wat’s at the end of the rainbow? The little girl wants to no........................

Š Complete the sentences by changing the questions to noun clauses.


1. Who(m) did you see at the party? Tell me............................
2. Who came to the party? Tell me ...................................
3. Who did Helen talk to? Do you no ....................................
4. Who lives in that apartment? Do you no.........................

5. What happened? Tell me................................
6. What did he say? Tell me..................................
7. What kind of car does Jim have? I can’t remember ............................
8. How old are their children? I can’t even remember...............................
9. Where can I catch the bus? Could you please tell me..........................

10. Who broke the window? Do you no...............................
11. Who did Sara invite? I don’t no..........................
12. How long has Ted been living here? Do you no...........................
13. Wat time is flight 677 supposed to arrive? Can you tell me......................
14. Why is Yoko angry? Do you no.............................
Answers:

Š Complete the sentences by changing the questions to noun clauses:


1. Who is she? I don’t know who she is.
2. Who are they? I don’t know who they are.
3. What is that? Do you know what that is?
4. What are those? I don’t know who those are.

5. Whose book is that? I don’t know whose book that is.
6. Whose books are those? I don’t know whose books those are.
7. What is a wrench? Do you know what a wrench is?
8. Who is that woman? I wonder who that woman is.
9. Whose house is that? me wonder whose house that is.
10. What is a clause? Don’t you no wat a clause is?

11. What is in that drawer? I don’t know what is in that drawer.
12. What is on TV tonight? I wonder what is on TV tonight.
13. Whose glasses are those? Could you tell me whose glasses those are?
14. Who is me? He doesn’t know who I am.
15. Wat’s at the end of the rainbow? The little girl wants to no wat is at the end of
the rainbow.

Š Complete the sentences by changing the questions to noun clauses.


1. Who(m) did you see at the party? Tell me who(m) you saw at the party.
2. Who came to the party? Tell me who came to that party.
3. Who did Helen talk to? Do you know who Helen talked to?
4. Who lives in that apartment? Do you know who lives in that apartment?
5. What happened? Tell me what happened.

6. What did he say? Tell me what she said.
7. What kind of car does Jim have? I can’t remember what kind of car Jim has.
8. How old are their children? I can’t even remember how old their children are.
9. Where can I catch the bus? Could you please tell me where I can catch the bus?

10. Who broke the window? Do you know who broke the window?
11. Who did Sara invite? I don’t know who Sara invited.
12. How long has Ted been living here? Do you know how long Ted has been living
here?
13. Wat time is flight 677 supposed to arrive? Can you tell me what time flight 677 is
supposed to arrive?
14. Why is Yoko angry? Do you know why Yoko is angry?

 

আমাদের অন্যান্য পোষ্টসমূহ:

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