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How to learn English with Bangla


How to learn English





Dangling Modifier

How to learn English with Bangla





সঠিক Subject এর পাশে সঠিক Modifier না বসাটাই Dangling Modifier. Dangling অংশে Subject লুকানো থাকে।





Dangling Modifier এর Structure মুলত 4 টি-





1. Present Participle+…





2. Past Participle+…





3. Perfect Participle (having + V3 ) +…





4. Preposition + Verb +ing+…





  • Walking in the park, a snake bit him.




= Walking in the park, he was bitten by a snake.





  • Excited to learn English, Youtube vedios were watch by me.




= Excited to learn English, I watched Youtube vedios.





  • Having been delayed by heavy traffic, Adnan couldn’t arrive on time.




= Having been delayed by heavy traffic, Adnan couldn’t arrive on time.





  • After graduating from DU, his studies were continued at Oxford University.




= After graduating from DU, he continued his studies at Oxford University.





Parallalism (সমান্তরাল)





একটি বাক্য কিছু Conjunction ( and, but, or, as well as, is, than, so…as, as…as, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also etc.) দ্বারা যুক্ত হলে, conjunction গুলোর আগে ও পরে সমজাতীয় noun/pronoun/adjective/verb/adverb/infinitive…বসে, এটাই মূলত Parallalism।





Example:





  • Avipsu ate the pizza, wiped his lips and smiling with contentment.




এখানে- ate-V2, wiped-V2 কিন্তু similing- V1 + ing. অর্থাৎ Verb তিনটি Parallal নয়।





Correct: Avipsu ate(V2 ) the pizza, wiped(V2) his lips and smiled(V2) with  contentment.





  • Olympic athletes usually like practicing, competing and to eat sandwiches.




= Olympic athletes usually like practicing, competing and eating sandwiches.





=Olympic athletes usually like to practise, compete and eat sandwiches.





  • For dinner we like rice and to fry chicken.




= For dinner we like rice and friend chicken.





= For dinner we like to cook rice and fry chicken.





  • Public transport such as buses or a train can help reduce air pollution.




=Public transport such as buses or trains(Plural) can help reduce air pollution.





  • Eshita was affable(adj.) with good manners and has a keen wit.




=Eshita was affable(adj.), well mannered(adj.) and keen-witted(adj.).





Conditional Sentences





If clause (Condition)+ main clause(Result)





Main clause (Result)+ if clause(condition)





Zero Conditional





If + simple present + simple present.





Type-1 Conditional





If + simple present + simple future.





Type-2 Conditional





If + simple past + present conditional or, Present continuous conditional.





Type-3 Conditional





If + past perfect + Perfect conditional or Perfect continuous conditional.





Redundancy Error





কোনো Sentence এ একই অর্থবোধক শব্দ একাধিক বার ব্যবহৃত হওয়াকেই Redundancy Error বলে।





Example:





  1. Do not repeat this mistake again.




এখানে,repeat (পুনরায়) এবং again (পুনরায়) একই অর্থ প্রকাশ করছে। কিন্তু Sentence এ একই অর্থবোধক শব্দ দুইবার ব্যবহারের প্রয়োজন নেই।





Correct: Do not repeat this mistake.





  • We stayed for a short period of time in the hotel.




এখানে, Short period বলতে time কেই বুঝানো হচ্ছে, তাই আলাদা করে time কে উল্লেখ করতে হবে না।





Correct: We stayed for a short period in the hotel.





  • I saw the whole scene with my own eyes.




আমরা তো আমাদের চোখ দিয়েই দেখি, তবে with my own eyes উল্লেখ করার কী প্রয়োজন।





Correct: I saw the whole scene.





  • Saqlain always behaves in a responsible manner.




কোনো কে অযথা টেনে বড় করার প্রয়োজন নেই।





Correct: Saqlain always behaver responsibly.





  • The accused was guilty of false misstatement.




= The accused was guilty of misstatement.





  • The reason Shourov was rejected was that he was too young.




= Shourov was rejected because he was too young.





Instead ofTry saying
12 midnight/ noonMidnight/ Noon
A total of 14 birds14 birds
Biography of her lifeBiography
Circle aroundCircle
Close proximityProximity
Each and everyEach
End resultResult
Exactly the sameThe same
Free giftGift
In spite of the fact thatAlthough
In the event thatIf
New innovationInnovation
One of the sameThe same
Period of four daysFour days
Repeat againRepeat
Revert backRevert
Shorter/ Longer in lengthShorter/ Longer
Summarize brieflySummarize




Adjective & Adverb





Adjective modify করে -Noun ও Pronoun কে।





Adverb modify করে- Adjective, Verb & Adverb কে।





  • The animal reacts violent in stress.




এখানে Violent  টা modify করছে reac(V)কে , অর্থাৎ verb কে। তাই এখানে violent হবেনা , violently হবে।





Correct: The animal reacts violently in stress.





Tiger is a violent(adj.) animal(Noun).





Comparisons-





  1. Positive
  2. Comparative
  3. Superlative




  • He is poorest of the two.




দুজনের মধ্যে তুলনা করলে comparative form হয়। কিন্তু এখানে Superlative form দেওয়া আছে।





Correct: He is the poorer of the two.





  • The speed of the engine is greater than the old one.




এখানে, ১ম engine এর speed এর সাথে ২য় engine এর speed এর তুলনা করা হয়েছে বুঝাচ্ছে।





The speed of the engine in greater than that of the old one.





কিছু কিছু Comparative degree জায়গায় ব্যবহার করা যায় না। যেমন:





  • These two lines are more parallel.




Parallel মানেই তো সমান্তরাল। ২ টি লাইর বেশি বা কম সমান্তরাল তো হতে পারে না। অর্থাৎ





= These two lines are parallel.





  • This box is more square than the others.




= This box is square than.





Double Negatives





দুটি Negative word একসাথে বসানো ফলে Sentence টির Positive অর্থও প্রকাশ করেনা বরং একটা ভূল হয়ে যায়। এটাই মূলত Double error . যেমন:





  • Arif wasn’t rarely present at meetings.




= Arif was rarely present at meetings.





  • Dhaka had scarcely no rain last year.




= Dhaka had scarcely any rain last year.





  • Zoa & Tashfiq don’t watch movies seldom.




= Zoa & Tashfiq watch movies seldom.





Hardly, Barely, Scarcely, Rarely, Seldom ইত্যাদি Negative word এর সাথে আরো Negative word যোগ করলে Double Negative error হয়।





  • The evidence in certainly not irrefutable.




= The evidence in certainly irrefutable.





  • This gem is not uncommon.




= This gem is uncommon.





  • The price of the car in not insignificant.




= The price of the car in insignificant.





  • He wasn’t irresponsible about his duties.




= He wasn’t responsible about his duties.





Subjunctives





Ask, desire, prefer, demand, insist, recommend, require, urge etc. এর পর সবসময় verb এর base form হয়।





  • She ignored my suggestion that she stops smoking.




= She ignore my suggestion that, she stop smoking.





Pronoun Usage





Pronoun সবসময় একটি নির্দিষ্ট Noun কে Replace করে।





  • Akib and Samid went for shopping but he couldn’t buy anything.




এখানে, ‘he‘ দ্বারা কোন Noun কে Replace করা হয়েছে তা বোঝাচ্ছে না, এটা এক ধরনের Pronoun Usage Error.





  • One should take your duties seriously.




= One should take one’s duties seriously.





  • He is taller than me.




= He is taller than I.





  • He knows as well as me.




= He knows as well as I.





  • After falling out of the boat, the shark bit the man.




= After falling out of the boat, the man was bit by shark.





  • Frustrated with his behavior, he was thrown out of the class.




= Frustrated with his behavior, the teacher threw him out of the class.





Run on Sentence





দুটি Independent clause  full stop বা semi colon ছাড়া অন্য কোনো punctuation marks দিয়ে যুক্ত হলে, বাক্য দুটি দেখতে সঠিক মনে হলেও আসলে তা ভুল। এটাই  run on sentence এর মূল সমস্যা। যেমন:





  • It is really sunny, I need an umbrella.




দুটি Independent clauseকখনোই (,) দ্বারা যুক্ত হবেনা। এটি Run on sentence.





= It is really sunny./; I need an umbrella.





= It is really sunny and hence I need an umbrella.





= As it is really sunny, I need an umbrella.





  • I was on time, she was very late.




=I was on time. She was very late.





=Although I was on time, she was very late.





Countable & Non-countable Nouns





Countable NounNon-countable Noun
A fewA little
ManyMuch
Number ofAmount of
MoreMuch
FewerLess
There is/ areThere is
This, That, These, ThoseThis, That
Some, The anySome, The any
More thanMore than
3 bottles of milk/oilMilk/ Oil
2 Bars of soapSoap
4 Pieces of breadBread




Non-countable Nouns: Liquid, Powder, Money, Soap, Food, Meat, Furniture, Utensil, Physics, Mathematics, News, Information, Politics, Home work, Advertising, Cheese, Gold, Bread, Chocolate etc.





Appositive





Appositive এর মাধ্যমে কোনো Sentence কে complex এ রুপান্তর না করে Simple অবস্থাতেই নতুন তথ্য যোগ করা যায়।





যার ব্যাপারে তথ্য যোগ করব তার ঠিক পরে ‘ দুটি Comma-র’ মাঝে Appositive add করতে হবে।





Example: Mehedi, a young rapper, is a genuinely good guy.





Collective Subjects





যখন একটি Word দিয়ে একত্রে অনেকজনকে এটি Subject হিসেবে বুঝানো হয় তখন তাকে Collective Subject বলে। যেমন-





The jury havehas  reached its decision.





এখানে, প্রত্যেকটি Judge একত্রিত হয়ে একটি সিদ্ধান্ত তে পেীছিয়েছে।





The jury is arguing over several issues.





এখানে, Jury-এর সদস্যগণ আলাদা আলাদা হয়ে argue করেছে। তাই Verb singular না হয়ে plural হবে।





= The jury are arguing over several issues.





Subject Verb Agreement





Subject singular হলে Verb singular হবে, এবং





Subject plural হলে Verb plural হবে।





Example-





His knowledge(Subject Singular) of history aid(Plural) him in his work.





= his knowledge(Subject Singular) of history aids(Singular) him in his work.





Subject with accompaniment





Sakib, accompanied by Shams, were/ was enjoying the game.





সবসময় Preposition এর আগের Subject অনুসারে Verb ব্যবহৃত। Preposition এর পরের Subject যদি থাকে তাহলে Avoid করতে হয়।





As well as, along with, beside, together with, accompanied by, in addition to etc. থাকলে Verb প্রথম Subject অনুযায়ী বসবে।





He along with his parents have/ has attendend the party.





Common Mistakes





Your- তোমার - It’s your book.





Your’re- You(তুমি) are(হও) - Your’re a great person.





Its- এর- Turn the camera on its side.





It’s- It is- It’s a notebook.





Then- পরে- First, I’ll finish my work then I’ll go there.





Than- থেকে- He is taller then I.





Affect- Verb- The flood affected our country.





Effect- Noun- The effect of the flood was very bad.





Accept- গ্রহন-





                             I accept your gift except the green marker.





Except-ব্যতীত -





Teacher’s-শিক্ষকের - This is our teacher’s house.





Teachers’-শিক্ষকদের - It’s teachers’ room.





Lose-হেরে যাওয়া- They lose the game.





Loose-ঢিলা- My dress is loose.





Compliment-প্রশংসা- She paid me an enormous compliment





Complement-পূরক- Engineersimple proved a perfect complement to the school in this.





There-সেখানে- There is a beautiful garden.





Their-তাদের- I wanted to go to their house.





They’re –তারা( They are)- They are good students.





To –হতে Preposition-He goes to his school.





Too- Also- I will do the work too.





Two-দুই- I’ve two new dresses.





Fewer- Countable- Give me a fewer books.





Less- Non- countable- Give me less money.





Either…or & Neither…Nor





Sentence এ either…or বা Neither…nor থাকলে Or বা nor এর কাছে যে Subject থাকবে সে অনুসারে Verb ব্যবহৃত হবে।Example:





  • Either Ayman or his friends have made this vedio.
  • Neither the players nor the coach takes the responsible of the lose.




Who(He)/ Whom(Him)





Who বা Whom কে যদি He দ্বারা Replace করা যায় তবেই Who হবে। আর Him দ্বারা Replace করা গেলে Whom হবে।





I don’t know that who the management liked.





Sentence এর  who কে he দ্বারা Replace করলে ভুল হয়। তাই এখানে, Who না হয়ে Whom হবে





I don’t know whom the management liked.





ইংরেজিতে দক্ষ হয়ে উঠতে আমাদের অন্যান্য় লেখনীসমূহ- how to solve analogies, Synonym & Antonym full list.





আমাদের অন্য সাইট থেকে প্রডাক্ট ক্রয় করতে চাইলে এখানে ক্লিক করুন...


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