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# Piezoelectric Crystals

Piezoelectric Crystals-Certain crystalline accoutrements, videlicet, Rochelle swab, quartz and tourmaline parade the piezoelectric effect i.e., when we apply ana.c. voltage across them, they joggle at the frequence of the applied voltage.

Again, when they're compressed or placed under mechanical strain to joggle, they produce ana.c. voltage.

Similar chargers which parade piezoelectric effect are call piezoelectric chargers.

Of the colorful piezoelectric chargers, quartz is most generally use because it's affordable and readily available in nature.

## Quartz demitasse

Quartz chargers are generally use in demitasse oscillators because of their great mechanical strength and simplicity of manufacture.

The natural shape of quartz demitasse is hexagonal as shown in Fig-1.

The three axes are show-

The z- axis is call the optic axis, thex-axis is call the electrical axis and y- axis is call the mechanical axis.

Quartz demitasse can be cut in different ways.

Crystal cut vertical to thex-axis is call x-cut demitasse. Whereas that cut vertical to y- axis is call y- cut demitasse.

The piezoelectric parcels of a demitasse depend upon its cut.

## Frequence of clear

Each demitasse has a natural frequence like a pendulum.

The natural frequence f of a demitasse is give by

f = K/ t

Where K is a constant that depends upon the cut and t is the consistence of the demitasse.

It's clear that frequence is equally commensurable to demitasse consistence.

The thinner the demitasse, the lesser is its natural frequence and vice-versa.

Still, extremely thin demitasse may break because of climate.

This puts a limit to the frequence accessible.

In practice, frequentness between 25 kHz to 5 MHz have been attain with chargers.

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