Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant

The Kakhovka Hydroelectric Station is a run-of-river power plant on the Dnieper River in Nova Kakhovka, Ukraine. Nova Kakhovka is a port city located on the reservoir's southern bank.

 The station was built between 1958 and 1962 to provide electricity for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons program and for industrial development in eastern Ukraine. It was built by a branch of the Soviet Ministry for Atomic Energy, which also operated it until 1992 when it passed to the newly created Ukrainian State Nuclear Power Plant "Nova Kakhovka". The station has three units with a total installed capacity of 1,064 MW. Its average annual generation is 1,750 GWh.


 


Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant: Location

 The Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant is located in the city of Kakhovka, southern Russia. It is a part of the Tambov hydroelectric plant and supplies electricity to the town of Kakhovka and its surrounding area. The power plant was built in 1965 as part of an ambitious Soviet-era plan to develop water resources in the south of Russia.

 
Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant: Construction

 

The construction of the Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant began in 1966 and took three years to complete. The dam was built across the river Khanka using concrete blocks weighing up to 240 tonnes each. At its peak, more than 5,000 workers were involved in constructing this project which cost around £10m (US$17m). When completed, it covered an area of 1km2 with a reservoir that held 60 million cubic metres (3 million cubic yards) of water. 

The construction of the Kakhovka hydroelectric power plant began in 1911. It was immediately taken over by the  General Directorate of Water Transport and Power Plants, which was responsible for the construction of all large hydropower plants in Russia. The design of the plant was carried out by Nikolay Varvinsky, who also supervised its construction. The first generator was put into operation on December 18, 1912.

 

In 1913, because of increased demand for electricity in Russia, a second generator was commissioned at Kakhovka. At that time, there were already two turbines with a nominal capacity of 3 MW each, which supplied electricity to Moscow and other cities in Russia. During World War I (1914-1918) there was a sharp increase in electricity consumption and therefore a need for more generators. In 1916 it was decided to construct two more turbines with a nominal capacity of 6 MW each and one more with a nominal capacity of 10 MW. All three turbines were installed in 1917-1918 year

Dam and Reservoir

The Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant (the dam and reservoir) is located in the Kakhovka Reservoir, which is part of the Don River basin. The dam was built in the 1930s by the Soviet government and was meant to store water for irrigation.

The power plant consists of two dams: one for generating power and another for storing water. The first dam was built in 1932 and has a height of 105 meters. The second dam was built in 1954 and has a height of 91 meters. Together these dams comprise a total power generation capacity of 2,575 MW.

Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant: Dam

The dam itself is an earth-fill embankment structure that is about 500 meters long and 60 meters high at its highest point (see figure below). At the bottom of the reservoir there are two spillways that drain water from the reservoir into nearby rivers or lakes through pipes or tunnels.

Generating Equipment

The Kakhovka hydroelectric power plant is a base load power station in the Bryansk Oblast, Russia. It was built by the Volga-Donenergo concern and is owned by the State Atomic Energy Corporation ROSATOM. The facility has an installed capacity of 2,500 MW, producing about 1% of Russia's total electricity output.

 The main dam spans approximately 1.8 km and has a crest altitude of 240 m above sea level. The generating equipment consists of 16 units with capacities ranging from 20 MW to 250 MW each, which operate at a maximum power rate of 3200 MW. The average annual generation capacity is 55 billion kWh (about 32% of Russia's total energy consumption).

 

The building houses an automatic generator control system with three automatic voltage stabilizers which regulate voltage automatically in response to changes in load or water level fluctuations at the dam reservoir. The water from the reservoir is pumped back into it through two pipelines: one for intake water and one for return

 

Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Operational Statistics

The plant has the ability to generate up to 2,800 MW of electricity. The power plant has a total capacity of 2,400 MW and it produces electricity for domestic use, industrial purposes and export.

The main components of the Kakhovka Hydroelectric Power Plant include:

1) Hydroelectric turbine units with a total capacity of 2,400 MW

2) Turbine generator units with a total capacity of 1,200 MW

3) Water treatment facilities with a capacity of 200 cubic meters per second (m3/s).

 


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