Steam Power Plant
Classification of Generating Stations
(i) Steam Power Station (Thermal Station)
(i) The fuel (i.e., coal) used is quite cheap.
(ii) Less initial cost as compared to other generating stations.
(iii) It can be install at any place irrespective of the existence of coal. The coal can be transported to the site of the plant by rail or road.
(iv) It requires less space as compared to the hydroelectric power station.
(v) The cost of generation is lesser than that of the diesel power station.
(i) It pollutes the atmosphere due to the production of large amount of smoke and fumes.
(ii) It is costlier in running cost as compare to hydroelectric plant.
Schematic Arrangement of Steam Power Station
The whole arrangement can be divided into the following stages for the sake of simplicity :
Coal and ash handling arrangement
Steam generating plant
Coal and ash handling plant:
- Steam generating plant: The steam generating plant consists of a boiler for the production of steam and other auxiliary equipment for the utilization of flue gases.
(iv) Air preheater
6. Cooling arrangement
Choice of Site for Steam Power Stations
(i) Supply of fuel:
Note: Efficiency of the plant is increased by reducing turbine exhaust pressure. Low pressure at the exhaust can be achieved by condensing the steam at the turbine exhaust.
(ii) Availability of water:
(iii) Transportation facilities:
(iv) Cost and type of land:
(v) Nearness to load centers:
(vi) Distance from the populated area:
My point of view
Efficiency of Steam Power Station
(i) Thermal efficiency:
(ii) Overall efficiency:
Equipment of Steam Power Station:
Steam generating equipment
Water treatment plant
Steam generating equipment:
(a) Water tube boilers, (b) Fire tube boilers
(ii) Boiler furnace:
(a) Plain refractory walls
(b) Hollow refractory walls with an arrangement for air cooling
(c) Water walls.
Note: The size of the furnace has to be limit due to space, cost, and other considerations.
(a) Radiant superheater, (b) Convection superheater
(v) Air Pre-heater:
(a) Recuperative type, (b) Regenerative type
(i) Jet condenser (ii) Surface condenser
The advantages of this type of condenser are :
Note: By liquidating steam at the exhaust of turbine, a region of emptiness is create. This results in a very low pressure at the exhaust of turbine.
(i) Impulse turbines, (ii) Reactions turbines
4.Water treatment plant: