A Survey of Communication Applications
The applications of electronic techniques to communication are so common and pervasive that you are already familiar with most of them. The applications of electronic techniques to communication are so common and pervasive that you are already familiar with most of them You use the telephone, listen to the radio, and watch TV. You also use other forms of electronic communication, such as cellular telephones, ham radios, CB and Family radios, home wireless networks for Internet access, texting, electronic mail, and remote-control garage door openers.
1.AM and FM radio broadcasting:
Stations broadcast music, news, weather reports, and programs for entertainment and information. It includes a shortwave.
There is both satellite and terrestrial. Radio programming is transmit in digital format.
Stations broadcast entertainment, informational, and educational programs by radio.
4.Digital television (DTV):
Radio transmission of television programming is perform by digital methods, both satellite and terrestrial, e.g., high definition television (HDTV) and Internet Protocol Television (IPTV).
Movies, sports events, and other programs are distribute to subscribers by fiber-optic and coaxial cable.
Printed visual material is transmit over telephone lines. A facsimile, or fax, machine scans a document and converts it to electronic signals that are send over the telephone system for reproduction in print A Survey of Communication Applications form by another fax machine. Faxes can also be send from a computer.
7.Wireless remote control:
This category includes a device that controls any remote item by radio or infrared. Examples are A Survey of Communication Applicationsmissiles, satellites, robots, toys, and other vehicles or remote plants or stations. A remote keyless entry device, garage door opener, and the remote control on your TV set are other examples.
8.Internet of Things (IoT):
The monitoring or control of remote devices, appliances, and other items in a home, office or other facility is usually accomplish by a combination of wireless and Internet connectivity.
9.Navigation and direction-finding services:
Special stations transmit signals that can be pick up by receivers for the purpose of identifying exact location (latitude and longitude) or determining direction and/or distance from a station. Such systems employ both land-based and satellite stations. The services are use primarily by boats and ships or airplanes, although systems for cars and trucks are being develop. The Global Positioning System (GPS) which uses 24 satellites is the most widely use.
Measurements are transmit over a long distance. Telemetry systems use sensors to determine physical conditions (temperature, pressure, flow rate, voltages, frequency, etc.) at a remote location. The sensors modulate a carrier signal A Survey of Communication Applications that is send by wire or radio to a remote receiver that stores and/or displays the data for analysis. Examples are satellites, rockets, pipelines, plants, and factories.
Radio signals, including infrared, are emit by virtually all heavenly bodies such as stars and planets. With the use of large A Survey of Communication Applications directional antennas and sensitive high-gain receivers, these signals may be pick up and use to plot star locations and study the universe. Radio astronomy is an alternative and supplement A Survey of Communication Applications to traditional optical astronomy.
Surveillance means discreet monitoring or “spying.” Electronic techniques are widely use by police forces, governments, the military, A Survey of Communication Applications business and industry, and others to gather information for the purpose of gaining some competitive advantage. Techniques include phone taps, tiny wireless “bugs,” clandestine listening stations, and reconnaissance airplanes and satellites.
Continuous background music is transmit for doctors’ offices, stores, elevators, and so on by local FM radio stations on special high-frequency subcarriers that cannot be picked up by conventional FM receivers.
14.Internet radio and video:
Music and video are deliver on a computer via the Internet.
- Telephones: One-on-one verbal communication is transmit over the vast worldwide telephone networks employing wire, fiber optics, radio, and satellites.
- Cordless telephones provide short-distance wireless communication for cord-free convenience.
- Cell phones provide worldwide wireless communications via handsets and base stations and the wired telephone system. In addition to voice communications, cell phones facilitate e-mail, Internet access, instant message service, video, and games.
- Internet telephones, known as voice over the Internet protocol (VoIP) phones, use high-speed broadband services (cable, DSL, wireless, fiber) over the Internet to provide digital voice communications.
- Satellite phones use low-earth-orbit satellites to give worldwide voice service from any remote location on earth.
- Two-way radio: Commercial, industrial, and government communication is transmitted between vehicles, handheld units, and base stations. Examples include police, fi re, taxi, forestry service, trucking companies, aircraft, marine, military, and government.
- Radar: This special form of communication makes use of reflected microwave signals for the purpose of detecting ships, planes, and missiles and for determining their range, direction, and speed. Most radar is used in military applications, but civilian aircraft and marine services also use it. Police use radar in speed detection and enforcement.
- Sonar: In underwater communication, audible baseband signals use water as the transmission medium.
Submarines and ships use sonar to detect the presence of enemy submarines. Passive sonar uses audio receivers to pick up water, propeller, and other noises. Active sonar is like an underwater radar with which reflections from a transmitted ultrasonic pulse are used to determine the direction, range, and speed of an underwater target.
- Amateur radio: This is a hobby for individuals interested in radio communication. Individuals may become licensed “hams” to build and operate two way radio equipment for personal communication with other hams.
- Citizens radio: Citizens band (CB) radio is a special service that any individual may use for personal communication with others. Most CB radios are used in trucks and cars for exchanging information about traffic conditions, speed traps, and emergencies.
- Family Radio Service: This is a two-way personal communication with handheld units over short distances (< 2 mi).
- The Internet: Worldwide interconnections via fiber optic networks, telecommunications companies, cable TV companies, Internet service providers, and others provide World Wide Web (WWW) access to millions of websites and pages and electronic mail (e-mail).
- Wide-Area Networks (WANs): Worldwide fiber-optic networks provide long-distance telephone and Internet services.
- Metropolitan-area networks (MANs): Networks of computers transmit over a specific geographic area such as a college campus, company facility, or city. Normally they are implemented with fiber-optic cable, but may also be coaxial cable or wireless.
- Local-area networks (LANs): Wired (or wireless) interconnections of personal computers (PCs), laptops, servers, or mainframe computers within an office or building for the purpose of e-mail, Internet access, or the sharing of mass storage, peripherals, data, and software.