Generation of electricity Formula
Electrical energy may be a manufactured commodity like clothing, furniture, or tools.
Just as the manufacture of a commodity involves the conversion of raw materials available in nature into the specified form.
Similarly, the electricity produced from the sorts of energy available in nature.
However, electricity differs in one important subject. Whereas other commodities may produce at will and consumed as required, the electricity must be produced and this energy transmitted to the purpose of use at the moment it's needed.
The entire process takes only a fraction of a second. This instantaneous production of electricity introduces technical and economical considerations unique to the electric power industry.
Energy is out there in various forms from different natural sources like pressure head of water, the energy of fuels, atomic energy of radioactive substances, etc.
All these sorts of energy are often converted into electricity by the utilization of suitable arrangements. The arrangement essentially employs an alternator coupled to a major mover.
The energy obtained from various sources drives the first cause by like the burning of fuel, the pressure of water, the force of the wind, etc.
For example, the energy of a fuel (e.g., coal) wont to produce steam at high temperatures and pressure.
The steam is fed to a major mover which can be an external-combustion engine or a turbine. The turbine converts the heat of steam into energy which further converted into electricity by the alternator.
Similarly, other sorts of energy are often converted into electricity by employing suitable machinery and equipment.
Sources of EnergySince electricity is produced from the energy available in various forms in nature, it's desirable to seem into the varied sources of energy. These sources of energy are:
(i) The Sun
Out of those sources, the energy thanks to Sun and wind has not been utilized on an outsized scale thanks to a variety of limitations.
(i) The Sun:The Sun is the primary source of energy. The sun radiates the warm energy which focussed over a little area by means of reflectors.
We can use this heat to boost steam and electricity is often produced with the assistance of a turbine-alternator combination.
(a) it requires an outsized area for the generation of even a little amount of electrical power
(b) it can't be utilized in cloudy days or in the dark
(c) it's an uneconomical method.
Nevertheless, there are some locations where strong radiation received very regularly. Such locations offer more interest to the solar plant builders.
(ii) The Wind:We can use this electricity formula where wind flows for a substantial length of your time. We will use wind energy to run the windmill which drives a little generator.
In order to get the electricity from a windmill continuously, the generator arranged to charge the batteries. These batteries supply energy when the wind stops.
This method has the benefits that maintenance and generation costs are negligible.
(iii) Water:When water is stored at an appropriate place, it possesses P.E. due to the top created.
This water energy must be converted into energy with the assistance of water turbines.
The water turbine drives the alternator which converts energy into electricity.
This electricity formula for the generation of electricity has become very fashionable because of its low production and maintenance costs.
(iv) Fuels:The sources of mineral fuel are scanty or lacking. The main sources of electrical energy are fuels viz. solid fuel as coal, liquid fuel as oil and gas fuel as gas.
The heat energy of those fuels converted into energy by suitable prime movers like steam engines, steam turbines, combustion engines, etc.
The first cause drives the alternator which converts energy into electricity.
Although fuels still enjoy the place of chief source for the manufacture of electricity. Yet their reserves are diminishing day by day.
Therefore, this trend is to harness water power which is more or less a permanent source of power.
(v) Nuclear energy:Towards the top of the Second War, it discovered that an outsized amount of warmth energy which liberated by the fission of Uranium and other fissionable materials.
It estimated that heat produced by 1 kg of fuel is adequate to that produced by 4500 tones of coal.
The heat produced thanks to fission can utilize to boost steam with appropriate arrangements.
However, there are some difficulties with the use of atomic energy.